Calcutta also had an indirect but important influence on the battles of the Carnatic Wars. Upon hearing the news of Shaista Khan's plan, Mr. Charnock determined that it was no longer safe to remain in Hooghly and decided to move downstream to Sutanuti, a small hamlet on the banks of the river Hooghly on 20 December 1686. Poverty existed in India before the British, thanks in part to constant war, food shortages, and the caste system, but in general Indian society took care of everyone. You can check out similar questions with solutions below. Charnock decided it was not safe to remain in Sutanuti and moved to the island village at Hijli. When a fortnight passed without any answer from the king, Captain Heath, frustrated and dejected, returned to Madras on 4 March 1689. Although it was not completed to the southern end of the settlement, it marked the city’s eastern boundary. Log in. 1. History. 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This came to be known as the Maratha Ditch. At the time when Nicholson was ordered to proceed to Chittagong, Sir John Child was ordered to withdraw the company's establishment from Bombay, commence hostilities on the western coast, blockade Mughal harbors and attack their ships anywhere to be found. Many distinguished scholars, English and Bengali, such as Henry Thomas Colebrooke, James Prinsep and Pandit Radhakanta Sarman would grace the society's meetings and publications over the following century, vastly enriching knowledge of India's culture and past.[18]. Job Charnock was then at Madras and was directed to join the expedition with 400 soldiers from the Madras division. Some years later they began to strengthen the defences against the French. But even after seventy years of Independence there is Champaran everywhere in India. Enraged with this situation and determined to establish their authority, the company requested King James II in 1685 to permit the use of force against the Emperor's army to settle the matter. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. This irritated the new Nawab of Bengal, Siraj Ud Daulah, who viewed it as a threat to his sovereignty. According to the Court, the city has its genesis in the Maurya and Gupta period and it was an established trading post long before the Slave Dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughals, the Portuguese, the French or the East India Company established a modern township there. In 1727, on the order of King George I, a civil court was set up in the city. At the same time the admiral opened fire and burnt down 500 houses; property losses were about thirty lacs of rupees. Renamed Netaji by poet laureate Rabindranath Tagore, he is regarded by many as perhaps the most prominent and influential freedom fighter in Indian history and is venerated in many Bengali households even today. 1858: Beginning of the Raj. Log in. Gandhi was part of … However, the boundaries of the three villages gradually became less distinct, and before the battle of Plassey, the city could be divided into four different sub-areas: European Kolkata (Dihi Kolkata); a residential village with some sacred spots (Gobindapur); a traditional Indian market (Bazar Kalikata or Burrabazar); and a riverine mart concentrating on cloth trade (Sutanati). It is also just as often as not referred to as a War of Independence, and as one historian put it, "The so called First National War of Independence was neither First, nor National, nor a War of Independence". It was instituted with the Government of India Act of 1858 and lasted until the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947. Kali rises in the East Painted and gilded clay figure of Kali striding over Shiva, Bengal, Eastern India, late 19th century. Log in. Enraged still further when the British granted asylum to one Krishnaballav, who had embezzled money from the dewani of Dhaka, Siraj ud-Daula first attacked and captured Cossimbazar (taking as hostage William Watts and Begum Johnson), and then Calcutta, which fell after a short siege on 20 June 1756, during which the governor and many other officials escaped down the Hooghly River, leaving the remainder of the garrison and the Eurasian population of Calcutta to their fate. During the rule of the emperor Aurangzeb (reigned 1658–1707), the English East India Company was permitted to establish its base at Calcutta ( Kolkata ). Ibrahim Khan again sent letter to Mr. Charnock explaining that he had requested for the special Firman from the Emperor and it would take a few months before it arrived, and in the meantime Mr. Charnock was welcome to settle in Bengal and the governor would pay him 80,000 rupees for the goods that have been destroyed by Shaista Khan's regime. Following similar moves elsewhere in the country, the state government changed the city's official name from Calcutta to Kolkata in 2001. The next year, the company began developing the city as a Presidency City. (Ironically, this is the same city that has historically been a strong base of Indian communism: West Bengal was ruled by the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)) dominated Left Front for nearly three decades — the world's longest-running democratically elected communist government. Calcutta's intellectual life received a great boost in 1784 with the foundation of the Asiatic Society of Bengal by Sir William Jones, with the encouragement of Warren Hastings, himself no mean Oriental scholar. The site was carefully selected, being protected by the Hooghly River on the west, a creek to the north, and by salt lakes about two and a half miles to the east. There is a long chain of events behind the arrival of the East India Company in Bengal, specifically Job Charnock in Sutanuti in 1690. Unfortunately the plan went awry; some of the ships, due to the change in current and wind, arrived at Hooghly instead of Chittagong and anchored off the factory in Hooghly after being joined by their Madras troops. While the English were always looking for fortification of their factories in Bengal, Ibrahim Khan never allowed them to do so. While he was returning to Delhi, Englishmen sent with him a request to the Emperor to obtain a special firman to do business forever in Bengal; the Emperor was pleased to provide them the Firman and the occasion was celebrated with a 300 gun salute at Hooghly. They also used the wealth of Bengal to defeat the French. Mir Jafar was made the new Nawab, and the British had effectively seized control of Bengal. Delhi in all aspects provided a haven totally under the British control. The British Empire is remembered for its extensive, long-lasting and far-reaching imperial activities that ushered in an era of globalisation and connectivity. taraknathhati6733 taraknathhati6733 04.06.2020 History Secondary School +5 pts. Charnock had previously had disputes with officials of the Mughal Empire at the river port of Hugli (Hooghly) and had been obliged to leave, after which he attempted unsuccessfully to establish himself at other places down the river. How did the empire become so wildly successful at expanding? There were just over 11 million acres in cultivation in 1914 (in England and Wales). He was able to successfully treat her burns and in reward the Emperor allowed the company to establish factory at Pipili, Odisha, and for the first time English ships arrived at an eastern port. And, for good measure, he got parliamentary approval to bestow the new title ‘Empress of India’ upon Queen Victoria in 1876. In anticipation of a war with the French, who had a trading settlement in Chandemagore, the British began to fortify Calcutta. Also at this time, nobles such as Jagat Seth, Mir Jafar, Rai Durlav, Omichand and Rajballav were plotting against Siraj ud-Daula (a principal reason being the Nawab's arrogance, well attested to in contemporary sources)[8] and they invited Clive to take part in their plans. Mr. Charnock died in January 1692. [27][28], The city's economic recovery gathered momentum after economic reforms in India introduced by the central government in the mid-1990s. It was often dependent upon a person’s job or status within the East India Company (EIC). He proudly replied ", This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 03:27. Join now. Still, the British refused to stop building. Disraeli did, however, succeed in purchasing controlling shares in the Suez Canal Company, easing British worries over who would control the vital quick route to the east. In 1985 Rajiv Gandhi referred to Calcutta as a "dying city" because of the social and political traumas. In 1775, when Hastings was Governor-General, Nanda Kumar brought accusations of corruption against him, accusing him of accepting bribes and other abuses of power. In 1698 the English obtained letters patent that granted them the privilege of purchasing the zamindari right (the right of revenue collection; in effect, the ownership) of the three villages. As a result, a peace treaty was signed between Shaista Khan and Charnock on 16 August 1687. In 1773 Bombay (now Mumbai) and Madras (now Chennai) became subordinate to the government at Fort William. Whilst this matter was still awaiting investigation Nanda Kumar was indicted for forgery of a deed, condemned and executed. Calcutta became plagued by power outages, labor unrest, disappearing industry, and violence from the Naxalite movement. 1. The earlier British struggle with the French in south India had been but a dress rehearsal. Older textbooks mention both Calcutta and Bombay as financial centres, with some preferring Calcutta over Bombay. Jones worked closely with the pandits of the Kalighat Temple, together with the local ulema, in translating and producing new editions of rare and forgotten texts. This offended the new Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-daula, who succeeded his grandfather in the capital of Murshidabad in 1756, when he was in his twenties. He decided to accept the offer and ordered the Governor of Bengal to allow Company to return there. The poor are still exploited by the bureaucrats, moneylenders and politicians. After the death of Ranjit Singh in 1839, lawlessness prevailed in Punjab. [20] The centre of company control over the whole of Bengal from 1757, Calcutta underwent rapid industrial growth from the 1850s, especially in the textile sector, despite the poverty of the surrounding region. British agriculture did not fare well during the period either. But subsequent to the war, and the Rana policy of appeasement, it did not need to intervene militarily to secure that either. This culture was fostered in its wake by the Zamindari system, the Dayabhaga System the Hindu Joint Family System, the Mitakshara System, the Muslim Zenana System, the Protestant spirit of free capitalist enterprise, the Mughal-inspired feudal system and the Nautch. The prestigious University of the Punjab, also in Lahore, was the fourth university established by the colonials in South Asia, in the year 1882. His residence in Hooghly was secured with soldiers obtained from Madras. The former was marked by growing tension between the Congress Party, the main Indian nationalist organization with a base mostly (but not exclusively) among the Hindu population of the country, and the Muslim League, the main organization representative of the Muslim minority, which comprised almost 25% of India’s population. In 1858, British Crown rule was established in India, ending a century of control by the East India Company. The Mughal emperor granted East India Company freedom of trade in return for a yearly payment of 3,000 rupees. Intellectually indifferent, spiritually subdued and psychologically weak at that time, India had to adopt with the British authorities. Kolkata was the capital of the British Indian empire until 1911 when the capital was relocated to Delhi. The shift of capital agitated the British traders, who at that time were all based out of Calcutta. Ask your question. (after London) and was aptly renamed "City of Palaces" and the Great Eastern Hotel was regarded as the "Jewel of the East". Answer: The empire reached its full glory in the 16th century during the reign of Akbar. At that time India was under British rule. This common pairing of the goddess Kali standing on her husband, the god Shiva, illustrates the importance Tantra places on feminine creative power (shakti).Shiva is a shava (corpse) without the feminine presence of Shakti.. In 1750, Calcutta had a population of 120,000. In 1883, Surendranath Banerjea organised a national conference – the first of its kind in 19th century India. The presence of these merchants may have been to some extent responsible for Charnock’s choice of the site. This also fostered the Bengal Renaissance,[citation needed] an awakening of modern liberal thinking in 19th century Bengal, and which gradually percolated to the rest of India. - 18058742 1. Contemporary memoirs such as those of William Hickey record the consumption of enormous meals, washed down by copious quantities of claret, port, madeira and other wines, followed by the smoking of Hookahs. Join now. He was the co-founder of the Indian National Army and the head of state of the Arzi Hukumate Azad Hind, formed to counter and combat the British Raj in India. Captain Heath arrived in October 1688 in Bengal, took all of company persons on board, set sail to Balasore on 8 November 1688. Others note the British takeover did not make any sharp break with the past. The history of Kolkata as a British settlement, known to the British as Calcutta, dates from the establishment of a trading post there by Job Charnock, an agent of the English East India Company, in 1690. Located on the banks of the Hooghly River, this was a very important city under British rule. In examining why the British never colonized Nepal, it is imperative to first clarify the nature of British rule in the subcontinent, and how it varied from preexisting state formations like that of the Gorkhas. The servants of the company, who asked for permission to fortify their trading post, or factory, were given permission in general terms to defend themselves. Don't worry! Having installed Manikchand as the ruler of Alinagar, Siraj returned to Murshidabad. In the next year, Ibrahim Khan sent the order from the Emperor to Mr. Charnock which allowed unrestricted trade without paying any other taxes except the usual 3,000 rupees. Emperor Aurangzeb, enraged with the situation that the Company fortified Madras, occupied territory around it, captured Mughal ships, went into alliance with his enemy Sambhaji, he ordered his commanders everywhere in India to exterminate Company from the country and seize their properties anywhere to be found. [22] Kolkata received millions of refugees from what became East Pakistan without receiving substantial assistance from the central government. On June 20, 1756, Siraj-Ud-Daullah, who was the Nawab of Bengal, attacked the city and captured the Fort William which was fortified by East India Company earlier; Calcutta was re-captured by Robert Clive in 1757 when the British defeated Siraj-ud-daullah on the battle-field of Plassey Furthermore, Nanda Kumar was a Brahman, and his hanging caused widespread dismay and outrage in Calcutta. The British Empire comprised of Britain, the 'mother country', and the colonies, countries ruled to some degree by and from Britain. Peace treaty was again offered by the governor at the end of December 1686 but it was mainly to buy out time for attack and by February 1687 a large troop of Shaista Khan's army arrived at Hooghly to drive the Company out of Bengal. Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) is a city in eastern India. Soon (on 2 January 1757) Watson and Robert Clive retook Calcutta with a force of company sepoys and the assistance of the Royal Navy. Moreover, before the coming of the English, three local villages—Sutanati, Kalikata, and Gobindapore, which were later to become parts of Calcutta—had been chosen as places to settle by Indian merchants who had migrated from the silted-up port of Satgaon, farther upstream. The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India. In 1765, after defeating the next Nawab, Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Oudh and the Mughal Emperor at the Battle of Buxar, there was no one to stand in the way of the British and their dominance in North India. With this friendly invitation, Mr. Job Charnock with 30 soldiers returned to Sutanuti on 24 August 1690 and hoisted the Company standard on the banks of river Hooghly, thus beginning a new era of Company involvement in Bengal. While not in a position to fight against the Governor's troops, two Company agents were sent to Dhaka to plead to the governor to allow them to return to Sutanuti and build a fort there. The British period, c. 1700–1947. Calcutta saw the establishment of several different Western-style higher education institutions this period, including Sanskrit College (1824), Calcutta Medical College (1835), University of Calcutta (1857), Surendranath College (1885) and the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (1887), India's first research institute. That is why the British impact was abiding and lasting on the Indian people. Then he was ordered to proceed to Dhaka. The Calcutta High Court ruled in 2003[7] that Job Charnock, the Englishman generally believed to be the founder of the Calcutta, is not the founder of the city and that hence Kolkata has no birthday. Luck favored him because of an unexpected event. Tensions were largely due to the fact that both grou… The British Empire began in its formative years in the sixteenth century and flourished and grew dramatically, lasting until the twentieth century. The first native president of the Indian National Congress was Sir Womesh Chunder Bonnerjee and he was also the first Congress president to advocate self-rule by Indians, Sir Surendra Nath Banerjea (referred to by the British as "Surrender Not") were early eminent Calcuttans, who provoked and influenced nationalist thinking in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Kolkata, formerly known as Calcutta in English, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and is located in eastern India on the east bank of the River Hooghly.The city was a colonial city developed by the British East India Company and then by the British Empire. Shaista Khan allowed them to remain in Bengal, however to be limited only to Uluberia, a small town on the bank of river Hooghly south of Sutanuti, where they were allowed to make a port and do business from there, but their war ships were strictly not allowed to enter Hooghly. India accepted the suzerainty of the British authority coming under its iron grip. Kolkata was the capital of the British Indian empire until 1911 when the capital was relocated to Delhi. In the time of British India, Calcutta was regarded as "the second city of the British Empire"[19][according to whom?] The East India Company chose the place for a trade settlement. The British gained strength in the region as the Mughal empire weakened. The nawab was defeated shortly afterward at Plassey (June 1757), after which British rule in Bengal was assured. These incidents are documented in numerous records of the East India Company and by several authors [Bruce 1810 (Vol I and II), Marshman Vol I, Unknown 1829; see references below]. The British refused to do so. At the same time, the Company were desperate to open negotiations with the Emperor after they left Bengal and Mr. Child was sent to him. However the transportation costs and logistics were unfavorable and the plan was abandoned. Shaista Khan went after them in Dhaka, captured them and put them behind bars. The event must be situated in two different, yet interrelated contexts: firstly the all-India context, and secondly the Bengal one. When the Mughal officials, not wishing to lose what they had gained from the English company’s commerce, permitted Charnock to return once more, he chose Calcutta as the seat of his operations. 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