[4][5] In ensuing decades, high altitude electrical discharges were reported by aircraft pilots and discounted by meteorologists until the first direct visual evidence was documented in 1989. Wilson predicted that electrical breakdown should occur in the atmosphere high above large thunderstorms. Beim Blue jet lightning Vergleich konnte unser Sieger in allen Kriterien das Feld für sich entscheiden. Their green glow has been hypothesized by its observers to come from excited oxygen atoms, much as how auroras appear green, however, this is unconfirmed. (690 KB) It was taken at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, a National Science Foundation (NSF)-supported facility. Ghosts (Green emissions from excited Oxygen in Sprite Tops) are faint, green glows that appear after red sprites, fading away in milliseconds. 57 DOI: 10.1007/s11434-012-5486-3", https://spaceweatherarchive.com/2019/10/25/close-encounter-with-a-gigantic-jet/, ELVES, a primer: Ionospheric Heating By the Electromagnetic Pulses from Lightning, "Red sprites and blue jets explained - New discovery! This is the first image ever captured of blue jet lightning. They are less than 100 meters across. See also. Blue starters are considered to be a weaker form of blue jets. On July 22, 2002, five gigantic jets between 60 and 70 kilometres (35 and 45 mi) in length were observed over the South China Sea from Taiwan, reported in Nature. [22], On March 28, 2017, Photographer Jeff Miles captured four gigantic jets over Australia.[23]. TLEs are secondary phenomena that occur in the upper atmosphere in association with underlying thunderstorm lightning. The attribution of the accident to a sprite was made retroactively, since this term was not coined until late 1993. "Full report on the uncontrolled free fall of a stratospheric balloon payload provoked by a Sprite", Fractal Models of Blue Jets, Blue Starters Show Similarity, Differences to Red Sprites, "The Role of the Space Shuttle Videotapes in the Discovery of Sprites, Jets, and Elves", Fractal models of blue jets, blue starters show similarity, differences to red sprites, "Chinese Science Bulletin 2012, Vol. "[14] They appear to be shorter and brighter than blue jets, reaching altitudes of only up to 20 km. "GJ event that was clearly recorded in eastern China (storm center located at 35.6°N,119.8°E, near the Huanghai Sea)". The preferred usage is transient luminous event (TLE), because the various types of electrical-discharge phenomena in the upper atmosphere lack several characteristics of the more familiar tropospheric lightning. According to Sunanda Basu, a program director in NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences (which funded the research), the video is the first ground-based evidence of a direct electrical discharge from a thundercloud top to the lower edge of the Earth's ionosphere. Sprites are large-scale electrical discharges which occur high above a thunderstorm cloud, or cumulonimbus, giving rise to a quite varied range of visual shapes. Where blue jets are believed to initiate between the upper positive charge region and a negative screening layer directly above this region, gigantic jets appear to initiate between the upper positive and lower negative charge regions in the thundercloud. Lightning phenomena: sprites, elves and blue jets There are different types of lightning (or electrical discharges) that occur well above the realm of the thunderstorms that we experience in the troposphere (the lowest layer of earth’s atmosphere as it runs as high as about 17 km above earth’s surface). Unsere Redakteure haben uns der Aufgabe angenommen, Verbraucherprodukte verschiedenster Variante ausführlichst auf Herz und Nieren zu überprüfen, damit Sie zuhause schnell den Blue jet lightning sich aneignen können, den Sie zuhause haben wollen. Huge Mystery Flashes Seen In Outer Atmosphere, http://webarchive.loc.gov/all/20020914103454/http://elf.gi.alaska.edu/, The Endless, Short film inspired by Sprite, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Upper-atmospheric_lightning&oldid=1001571655, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 08:06. National Science Foundation, 2415 Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, USA Tel: (703) 292-5111, FIRS: (800) 877-8339 | TDD: (800) 281-8749, National Science Foundation - Where Discoveries Begin, Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE), Environmental Research and Education (ERE), International Science and Engineering (OISE), Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences (SBE), Responsible and Ethical Conduct of Research, Proposal and Award Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG), Award Statistics (Budget Internet Info System), National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES), Proposal & Award Policies Procedures Guide (PAPPG). It was taken at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, a National Science Foundation (NSF)-supported facility. In a similar process to how blue jets form, the higher charge region is discharged by the leader network before the same occurs in the lower charge region, and one end of the leader network propagates upward from the cloud toward the ionosphere. The electrical contact may represent an important component of the global electrical circuit, says Basu. These atmospheric discharges occur very high in the Earth 's atmosphere - much higher than the familiar form of lightning. They appear blue to the naked eye, can last for up to several hundreds of milliseconds and are cone-shaped. More about this Image The storm center was located at 33°S, 60°W, near the city of Rosario. A series of unusual, white luminous events atop the thunderstorm were observed over a 20-minute period, lasting for an average of 16 milliseconds each. There are several types of TLEs, the most common being sprites. [18][19] The jets lasted under a second, with shapes likened by the researchers to giant trees and carrots. These were taken in a series of 1994 aircraft flights to study sprites. Upper-atmospheric lightning is believed to be electrically induced forms of luminous plasma. The color is believed to be due to a set of blue and near-ultraviolet emission lines from neutral and ionized molecular nitrogen. Other events, having essentially lower terminal altitudes (<26 km), are named blue starters. The positive end of the leader network fills the negative charge region before the negative end fills the positive charge region, and the positive leader subsequently exits the cloud and propagates upward. Blue jets: project directly from the top of the thunderstorm in a narrow cone jet up to approximately 50 km altitude. On September 14, 2001, scientists at the Arecibo Observatory photographed a gigantic jet—double the height of those previously observed—reaching around 70 km (45 mi) into the atmosphere. The next known video recordings of a TLE were taken in 1989, when the Shuttle Mission STS-34 was conducting the Mesoscale Lightning Observation Experiment. The terms red sprites and blue jets gained popularity after a video clip was circulated following an aircraft research campaign to study sprites in 1994. Sie ragen bis zu 25 km in die Höhe, bevor sie sich auflösen. Only then does a brilliant white lightning leader crawl slowly from the top of the cloud, reaching about 10% of the height of the gigantic jet before fading. Blue starters are considered to be a weaker form of blue jets. The two main types of jets are blue jets and gigantic jets. Sprites are flashes of bright red light that occur above storm systems. [27][28], Pixies were first observed during the STEPS program during the summer of 2000, a multi-organizational field program investigating the electrical characteristics over thunderstorms on the High Plains. Several years later, the optical signatures of these events were named 'sprites' by researchers to avoid inadvertently implying physical properties that were, at the time, still unknown. [15] "Blue starters appear to be blue jets that never quite make it," according to Dr. Victor P. Pasko, associate professor of electrical engineering.[16]. P1.39 The Discovery of Red Sprites as an Opportunity For Informal Science Education. Other types of TLEs include sprite halos, ghosts, blue jets, gigantic jets, pixies, gnomes, trolls, blue starters, and ELVESs. In rund 40 km Höhe entstehen auf ähnliche Weise auch weiß-bläuliche, stichflammenähnliche Entladungen, „Blue Jets“ (dt. [25] They occur in the ionosphere 100 km (62 mi) above the ground over thunderstorms. Walter A. Lyons and Michey D. Schmidt (2003). Close encounter with a gigantic jet. Blue jet lightning - Wählen Sie dem Sieger der Tester. They often occur in clusters, lying 50 kilometres (31 mi) to 90 kilometres (56 mi) above the Earth's surface. Blue jets develop on the tops of cloud formations at altitudes of 12 to about 26 miles high. [20], On February 2, 2014, the Oro Verde Observatory of Argentina reported ten or more gigantic jet events observed over a thunderstorm in Entre Ríos south. On October 16, 2019, pilot Chris Holmes captured a high-resolution video of a gigantic jet from 35,000 feet above the Gulf of Mexico near the Yucatán Peninsula. They are not connected to lightning strikes. They are not related to lightning.[27]. Although jets are considered to be a type of upper-atmospheric lightning, it has been found that they are components of tropospheric lightning and a type of cloud-to-air discharge that initiates within a thunderstorm and travel upwards. ELVES were first recorded on another shuttle mission, this time recorded off French Guiana on October 7, 1990. They were first recorded on October 21, 1989, on a monochrome video of a thunderstorm on the horizon taken from the Space Shuttle as it passed over Australia. Gigantic jets reach higher altitudes than blue jets, and the upper portion of the jet changes color from blue to red. A team of researchers at Arecibo captured video evidence from the ground of this lightning phenomenon known as blue jet. More about this Image A team of researchers at Arecibo captured video evidence from the ground of this lightning phenomenon known as blue jet. The majority of these images, which include the first color imagery, are associated with a single thunderstorm. „blaue Strahlen“), die Zehntelsekunden dauern und im Bereich der Stratosphäre aus der Wolkenoberdecke regelrecht herausspringen. They can also be preceded by a reddish halo, known as a sprite halo. Gnomes are small, brief spikes of light that point upward from a thunderstorm cloud's anvil top, caused as strong updrafts push moist air above the anvil. [26] This refers to the process by which the light is generated; the excitation of nitrogen molecules due to electron collisions (the electrons possibly having been energized by the electromagnetic pulse caused by a discharge from an underlying thunderstorm). [27] They are about 200 meters wide, and have a maximum of 1 kilometer in height. The discovery is the first ground-based evidence linking the ionosphere with cloud tops in blue jet events. [6] The phenomena were named after the mischievous sprite, e.g., Shakespeare's Ariel or Puck,[7] and is also an acronym for Stratospheric/mesospheric Perturbations Resulting from Intense Thunderstorm Electrification. TLEs have been captured by a variety of optical recording systems, with the total number of recent recorded events (early 2009) estimated at many tens-of-thousands. Unsere Redakteure begrüßen Sie zu Hause auf unserem Testportal. By 2007, fewer than a hundred images had been obtained. The global rate of TLE occurrence has been estimated from satellite (FORMOSAT-2) observations to be several million events per year. The top of the jet appears to look much more like a red sprite than a blue jet, with hot spots and a fuzzy diffused appearance. [30] No scientific journals exist on these phenomena yet due to their recent discovery, but they have been observed on footage. [14] That ELVES was discovered in the Shuttle Video by the Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE) team at Marshall Space Flight Center, AL led by the Principal Investigator, Otha H."Skeet" Vaughan, Jr. ELVES is a whimsical acronym for Emissions of Light and Very Low Frequency Perturbations due to Electromagnetic Pulse Sources. [17] The jet was located above a thunderstorm over an ocean, and lasted under a second. When reviewing the video taken, two finger-like vertical images appeared in two frames of the film. [9] Sprites have been held responsible for otherwise unexplained accidents involving high altitude vehicular operations above thunderstorms.[10]. C-sprites (short for “columniform sprites”) is the name given to vertical columns of red light. The event was recorded using a monochrome, low-light video system, but the researchers all agree that the phenomena was seen visually as blue in color. In contrast, other types of TLEs are not electrically connected with tropospheric lightning—despite being triggered by it. Blue jets are cones of blue light brighter than sprites that spray upward from the tops of thunderclouds up to an altitude of about 25 miles (40 kilometers) at … TROLLs, (Transient Red Optical Luminous Lineaments) occur after strong sprites, and appear as red spots with faint tails, and on higher-speed cameras, appear as a rapid series of events, starting as a red glow that forms after a sprite tendril, that later produces a red streak downward from itself. Unlike sprites, blue jets are, as the name implies, blue in color. Also Available:Download the high-resolution JPG version of the image. They last for only a few microseconds. C-sprites exhibiting tendrils are sometimes called “carrot sprites”. ", "UPWARD ELECTRICAL DISCHARGES FROM THUNDERSTORM TOPS", Homepage of the Eurosprite campaign, itself part of the CAL (Coupled Atmospheric Layers) research group, March 2, 1999, University of Houston: UH Physicists Pursue Lightning-Like Mysteries, Ground and Balloon-Borne Observations of Sprites and Jets, Sprites and ELVES : Lightning's strange cousins flicker faster than light itself, Sprites, jets and TLE pictures and articles, High speed video (10,000 frame/s) taken by Hans Stenbaek-Nielsen, University of Alaska, NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Gigantic Jets Over Oklahoma (August 29, 2007). [31], Rare transient luminous events that occurs over tops of thunder storms, C. T. R. Wilson (1924) "The electric field of a thundercloud and some of its effects,", Earle R. Williams (November 2001) "Sprites, elves, and glow discharge tubes,". In the 1920s, the Scottish physicist C.T.R. Months after the accident, an investigation concluded that a "bolt of lightning" traveling upward from the clouds provoked the incident. [11] They are also brighter than sprites and, as implied by their name, are blue in color. The jet was initially observed to be traveling up at around 50,000 m/s (110,000 mph; 180,000 km/h) at a speed similar to typical lightning, increased to 160,000 and 270,000 m/s (360,000–600,000 mph; 580,000–970,000 km/h), but then split in two and sped upward with speeds of at least 2,000,000 m/s (4,500,000 mph; 7,200,000 km/h) to the ionosphere where it then spread out in a bright burst of light. [8] They normally are colored reddish-orange or greenish-blue, with hanging tendrils below and arcing branches above. Their color was a puzzle for some time, but is now believed to be a red hue. In contrast, other types of TLEs are not electrically connected with tropospheric lightning—despite being triggered by it. 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